**Parentheses** have the highest precedence and can be used to force an expression to evaluate in the order you want.

Contents

- 1 Which operator has the highest order of precedence in arithmetic expressions?
- 2 Which one out of the following has the highest precedence in an arithmetic expression?
- 3 Which of these have the highest precedence?
- 4 Which of the following has highest precedence in Java?
- 5 Which operator has highest precedence in C++?
- 6 Which of the following has highest operator precedence in C language?
- 7 What is precedence of arithmetic operators?
- 8 Operator PrecedenceIntro to Java Programming: An Interdisciplinary Approach and Computer Science: An Interdisciplinary Approach by Sedgewick and Wayne
- 9 Precedence order.
- 10 Associativity.
- 11 Precedence and associativity of Java operators.
- 12 Order of operand evaluation.
- 13 Precedence order gone awry.
- 14 Associativity gone awry.
- 15 What is the Precedence of Arithmetic Operators?
- 16 PHP, Java, C++, C
- 17 Visual Basic
- 18 Python
- 19 The Order of Operations: PEMDAS
- 20 Precedence and order of evaluation
- 21 Precedence and associativity of C operators
- 22 Examples
- 23 See also
- 24 Feedback
- 25 Operator Precedence – Visual Basic
- 26 Precedence Rules
- 27 Precedence Order
- 28 Associativity
- 29 Overriding Precedence and Associativity
- 30 See also
- 31 Feedback
- 32 Operators Precedence in C
- 33 Example
- 34 2.11. Order of Operations — Foundations of Python Programming
- 35 2.9. Order of Operations — How to Think like a Computer Scientist: Interactive Edition
- 36 Operator precedence – JavaScript
- 37 Precedence And Associativity
- 38 Examples
- 39 C Operator Precedence – cppreference.com

## Which operator has the highest order of precedence in arithmetic expressions?

For example, in mathematics and most computer languages, multiplication is granted a higher precedence than addition, and it has been this way since the introduction of modern algebraic notation.

## Which one out of the following has the highest precedence in an arithmetic expression?

Explanation: Operator ++ has the highest precedence than /, * and +. var2 is incremented to 7 and then used in expression, var3 = 7 * 5 / 7 + 7, gives 12.

## Which of these have the highest precedence?

Correct Option: D. Order of precedence is (highest to lowest) a -> b -> c -> d.

## Which of the following has highest precedence in Java?

In Java, parentheses() and Array subscript[] have the highest precedence in Java. For example, Addition and Subtraction have higher precedence than the Left shift and Right shift operators.

## Which operator has highest precedence in C++?

Certain operators have higher precedence than others; for example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator: For example x = 7 + 3 * 2; here, x is assigned 13, not 20 because operator * has higher precedence than +, so it first gets multiplied with 3*2 and then adds into 7.

## Which of the following has highest operator precedence in C language?

In C programming language, which of the following type of operators have the highest precedence? Explanation: No other operator has higher precedence than arithmetic operator.

## What is precedence of arithmetic operators?

When there is more than one arithmetic operator in an expression; multiplication, division, and modulo are calculated first, followed by subtraction and addition. If all arithmetic operators in an expression have the same level of precedence, the order of execution is left to right.

## Operator PrecedenceIntro to Java Programming: An Interdisciplinary Approach and Computer Science: An Interdisciplinary Approach by Sedgewick and Wayne

Operator precedence, operator associativity, and the order in which expressions are evaluated are all well-defined in Java, and they include the following: We will go through each of these three guidelines in detail.

## Precedence order.

When it comes to operator precedence, it describes how operands are grouped together with operators. If 1 + 2 * 3 is handled as 1 + (2 * 3), 1 * 2 + 3 is regarded as (1 * 2) + 3, and if 1 * 2 + 3 is treated as (1 * 2) + 3, this is because the multiplication operator has a greater precedence than the addition operator. You can override the default operator precedence rules by enclosing them in parentheses.

## Associativity.

When an expression has two operators with the same precedence, the operators and operands are grouped together based on their associativity, which is determined by the precedence of the operators. For example, the division operator is left-to-right associated, therefore 72 / 2 / 3 is interpreted as (72 / 2) / 3 since the division operator is left-to-right associated. You can override the default operator associativity rules by enclosing them in parentheses. The majority of Java operators are associative from left to right.

Thus, the formula x =y =z =17 is transformed into the expression x =(y=(z=17)), with the consequence that all three variables have the value 17.

Some operators do not have associative properties.

For example,

## Precedence and associativity of Java operators.

When an expression has two operators with the same precedence, the operators and operands are grouped together based on their associativity, which is defined as the degree to which they are related to one another. The division operator is left-to-right associated, therefore 72 /2 3 is handled as (72 / 2) /3, and 72 /2 3 is considered as(72 / 2) / 3, and so on. You can alter the default operator associativity rules by putting parentheses around the operator names. Java operators are associative from left to right for the most part, although there are some exceptions.

A result of this is that x=y=z=17 is transformed into the formula x=(y=(z=17)), with the effect that all three variables have the value 17.

The associative nature of some operations does not apply.

Level | Operator | Description | Associativity |
---|---|---|---|

16 | (). |
parenthesesarray accessmember access | left-to-right |

15 | ++- |
unary post-incrementunary post-decrement | left-to-right |

14 | +-!~++- |
unary plusunary minusunary logical NOTunary bitwise NOTunary pre-incrementunary pre-decrement | right-to-left |

13 | ()new |
castobject creation | right-to-left |

12 | * / % |
multiplicative | left-to-right |

11 | + -+ |
additivestring concatenation | left-to-right |

10 | |
shift | left-to-right |

9 | ==instanceof |
relational | left-to-right |

8 | =!= |
equality | left-to-right |

7 | |
bitwise AND | left-to-right |

6 | ^ |
bitwise XOR | left-to-right |

5 | | |
bitwise OR | left-to-right |

4 | logical AND | left-to-right | |

3 | || |
logical OR | left-to-right |

2 | ?: |
ternary | right-to-left |

1 | =+=-=*=/=%==^=|== |
assignment | right-to-left |

0 | - |
lambda expression arrow | right-to-left |

On the internet and in textbooks, you’ll discover a variety of alternative but equivalent operator precedence tables. Due to the fact that some operators cannot share operands, their relative precedence order does not matter (for example, newand!

), their disagreements are immaterial. In the Java Language Specification, there is no explicit operator precedence table to be found. Instead, the grammar that defines the Java programming language is used to deduce the operator precedence and associativity rules that must be followed.

## Order of operand evaluation.

It is determined by associativity and precedence as to the order in which Java groups operands and operators; however, it is not determined as to the order in which Java evaluates the operands. In Java, the operands of an operator are always evaluated from left to right when the operator is evaluated. Additionally, argument lists are processed from left to right at all times. As an illustration, in the equation A() + B() * C(D(), E()), the subexpressions are evaluated in the following order: A(), B(), D(), E(), andC.

- Despite the fact that C() appears to the left of bothD() andE(), we require the results of bothD() andE() in order to evaluateC() ().
- Short circuiting is a term used to describe a condition in which a circuit is shorted.
- While this is true, Java does not evaluate the second operand unless it is essential to determine the result in the case of and||operators.
- When it comes to boolean expressions, the non-short-circuiting forms ( and |) are rarely used by programmers.

## Precedence order gone awry.

The precedence order stated in a language does not always correspond to the precedence order defined in mathematics. If you use Microsoft Excel, for example, the symbol -ab is translated as (-a)b instead of -(ab). As a result, -112 is equal to 1, rather than -1, which is the figure that most mathematicians would anticipate. Microsoft refers to this as a “design choice” in their statement. One has to ask if the programmer was relying on the C precedence order, which states that unary operators have higher precedence than binary operators, in this case.

Once the order had been set in Microsoft Excel 2.0, it was not possible to simply modify it without losing backward compatibility with earlier versions of the software.

## Associativity gone awry.

It is possible that an operator’s associativity is implemented left-to-right in certain programming languages, but right-to-left in others, depending on the programming language. Exponentiation is a particularly scary case. In Wolfram Alpha and Google Sheets, the exponentiation operator is a right-to-left association operator, which means that 2 2 3 is handled as 2 (2 3) is treated as 256 in both programs. As opposed to this, the exponentiation operator is associative from left to right in Matlab and Excel, therefore the expression2 2 3 is considered asas(2 2) 3, which is the value 64.

#### Exercises.

- In the following code fragment, what is the result of the operation? Explain. System.out.println(“1 + 2 = ” + 1 + 2)
- System.out.println(“1 + 2 = ” + (1 + 2))
- Answer:
- 1 + 2 = 12
- And
- 1 + 2 = 3. In the case where one or both of the operands of the
- +
- Operator are strings, the other operand is automatically converted to a string as well. String concatenation and addition have the same priority as each other and are associative from left to right. The parenthesis in the second statement guarantee that the second
- Operator executes addition rather than string concatenation when the second
- Operator is used. Is there anything useful that the following code piece prints? A result of system.out.println(1 + 2 + “abc”)
- A result of system.out.println(“abc” + 1 + 2)
- An answer of 3abc, and an answer of abc12, respectively. Whether it is used for string concatenation or addition, the + operator is associative from left to right. To make the following expression more understandable to other programmers, add parenthesis around it. year percent 4 = 0 year percent 4 year percent 100!= 0 || year percent 400!= 0 || year percent 100!= 0 Answer: The file LeapYear.java has a number of comparable expressions, one of which is the following plausible substitute. Year percent 4 equals 0 in this case. The following are the year percents: (year percent 100!= 0) || (year percent 400!= 0)
- In the phrase 1= 2= 3, what is the value of the first term? Explain. Answer: There is a compile-time error as a result of this. The equation 1= 2= 3as(1= 2)= 3 is parsed by the compiler as (1= 2)= 3. This results in a compile-time error since you can’t use the=operator to compare abooleanto anint because the=operator isn’t supported. While the relational operators have left-to-right associativity, this trait is not particularly beneficial
- Instead, it is a nuisance. In the following code fragment, what is the result of the operation? Explain. the values of boolean an are false, boolean b are false, and the values of boolean c are true
- The system.out.println(a = b = c) function prints the value of a and b. It is printstrue, to be precise. Due to the fact that the equality operator is a left-to-right associative operator, a = evaluates totrueand the result of this comparison is compared toc, which yieldsstrue. What is the value of the expression+-17 in decimal form? Explain. As an example, the unary operators are associative from right to left. Is there a numerical value for the expression-17? Explain. It results in a compile-time error because Java interprets the pre-decrement operator (rather than two unary minus operators) as the pre-decrement operator What is the value ofzafter the code piece below has been executed successfully? For example, if int x = 5 and int y = 10, and the int z value is ++x * y-
- What is the value ofy after the following code piece has been run through it? In the following code snippet, int x equals 10
- Int y equals x++x
- What is the value ofx after it has been executed? Explain. It results in a compile-time error, as explained above. Java parses it as++(++x) when it comes to strings. The++xterm increases the value of the variablex and increases the value of the integer11. This results in a compile-time error because the pre-increment operator must be applied to a variable in order for it to work (not an integer). As a result, while the pre-increment operator has right-to-left associativity, this attribute is not practical
- Instead, the pre-increment operator has left-to-right associativity.

## What is the Precedence of Arithmetic Operators?

The priority rules for arithmetic operators are the same as those for mathematical operators, which are as follows: exponentiation is done first (when accessible), multiplication and division are conducted next, and addition and subtraction are executed last (when not available).

## PHP, Java, C++, C

Higher PrecedenceLower precedence | Arithmetic Operators |

*, /, % | |

+, – |

## Visual Basic

Higher PrecedenceLower precedence | Arithmetic Operators |

^ | |

*, /, , Mod | |

+, – |

## Python

Higher PrecedenceLower precedence | Arithmetic Operators |

** | |

*, /, //, % | |

+, – |

Due to the fact that multiplication and division occur in the same expression and because they are both of the same precedence, they are done from left to right (in the same manner as you read), which implies that the equation 6 / 3 * 2 is identical to 4. (division is performed before multiplication). If you prefer, however, that the multiplication be done before the division, you may shift the priority by using parenthesis, as in:6 / (3 * 2), which is identical to Computer programs can be developed using the text editor application on your computer, but keep in mind that it is not feasible to type fractions in the form of or while writing computer programs.

In a text editor, there is no equation editor at all!

Example: should be written as 6 / 3, and should be written as (4 * x + 5) / 6 should be written as The following is a summary of the sequence in which the operations were performed:

- It is necessary to conduct any procedures that are surrounded in parenthesis first. Following that, any exponentiations (which are accessible in Visual Basic and Python) are carried out
- Afterwards, all multiplication and division operations are carried out from left to right
- All addition and subtraction operations are completed from left to right at the end of the process.

In the expression(20 + 3) + 12 + 8 / 4 * 3, the operations are carried out in the following manner:

- 8 divided by 4 yields a result of 2
- 20 added to 3 yields a result of 23
- And 8 divided by 4 yields a result of 2. This result is then multiplied by three, getting a result of six
- The result of twelve is added to the result of three, yielding a result of thirty-five. Taking this value and multiplying it by six gives the final result of 41.

8 divided by 4 yields a result of 2; 20 added to 3 yields a result of 23; and 8 divided by 4 yields a result of 2 Taking this result and multiplying it by three gives us the number six; taking twelve and adding three gives us the number thirty-five. Taking this result and multiplying it by six gives the final result of 41;

## The Order of Operations: PEMDAS

If you are requested to simplify something complicated, for example, “”, the question that immediately arises is “Which method should I use to do this? Simply because there are two alternatives!” I’d want to add the following first: 4 + 2/3 = (4 + 2)/3 = 6/3 = 18. 4 + 2/3 = (4 + 2)/3 = 6/3 = 18. Alternatively, I might multiply first: 4 + 2/3 = 4 + (2/3), which is 4 + 6 = 10. Which of the following is the correct response? The next section has further information. In some ways, it appears as though the solution is contingent on how you approach the topic.

It was established as early as the 1500s that there should be a set of rules of priority, which we refer to as the “order of operations,” to help us avoid this muddle.

The shorthand (or, more correctly, the “acronym”) “PEMDAS” is a frequent strategy for remembering the sequence of operations, and it is sometimes transformed into the mnemonic phrase “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” to help people remember it.

The following listing indicates the relative importance of the operations: Parentheses are superior to exponents, which are superior to multiplication and division (although multiplication and division are on the same level of importance), while multiplication and division are superior to addition and subtraction, respectively (which are together on the bottom rank).

In other terms, the following is the order of precedence:

- (Simplify within parentheses)
- Exponents
- Multiplication and division (from left to right)
- Addition and subtraction (from left to right)
- Parentheses
- And exponents.

When you have a large number of operations of the same rank, you simply operate from left to right in order to complete them. When you multiply by three, the result is not fifteen three four (three times four) equals fifteen twelve, but rather fifteen three four equals five four because when you multiply by three, you get to the division sign first. For added assurance, use your calculator, which has been designed with the Order-of-Operations hierarchical structure, to check your answers. For example, if you put the preceding expression into a graphing calculator, you will obtain the following result: Because we had to do the multiplication first, we can see that, in the ” 4 + 2 3 ” question at the beginning of this article, Choice 2 was the correct answer because we have to complete the multiplication first before we can do the addition.

Because “brackets” and “orders” are the same as parentheses and “exponents” and “brackets” and “orders” are the same as exponents, the two acronyms are interchangeable.

BEDMAS is the method by which Canadian English speakers divide the difference.) Although the order of operations was determined in order to avoid miscommunication, PEMDAS can cause confusion of its own; some students have a tendency to apply the hierarchy as though all of the operations in a problem are on the same “level” (by simply going from left to right), but in many cases, those operations are not “equal.” Many times, rather of working from the outside in, it is beneficial to work problems from the inside out.

This is because some elements of the problem are “deeper down” than other sections.

#### Simplify4 + 3 2.

I need to simplify the word by removing the exponent before attempting to incorporate the number four: 4 plus 3 plus 2 equals 4 plus 9 equals 13.

#### Simplify4 + (2 + 1) 2.

Inside the parenthesis, I have to simplify the expression before I can pass the exponent through. Only after that will I be able to complete the addition of the 4. 4 plus (2 plus 1) equals 2=4 + (3) 2=4 + 9 =13 2=4 + 9 =13

#### Simplify4 +2.

The approach of doing these nested parentheses from left to right is simply too error-prone, and I should refrain from trying it. It is instead my intention to attempt to work from the inside out. I’ll start by simplifying within the curved parenthesis, then simplifying within the square brackets, and only then will I worry about the squaring of the lines. After it is completed, I will be able to finally include the4: 4 + 2 = 4 + 2 = 4 + 2 = 4 + 2 = 4 + 2 = 4 + 2 = 4 + 2 = 4 + 9 = 13 When square brackets (the ” ” in the example above) are used instead of parentheses, there is no special meaning to be gained.

The varied grouping characters are purely for the purpose of convenience. This is analogous to what happens in an Excel spreadsheet when you insert a formula in parentheses, as seen below: Each set of parenthesis is color-coded, so you can determine which pairs of parentheses are which:

#### Simplify

I’ll start with the simplified version between the parentheses: My succinct response is that the next website contains further worked examples.

## Precedence and order of evaluation

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Expressions’ grouping and evaluation of operands are affected by the precedence and associativity of C operators. The precedence of an operator is only significant if there are no other operators with a greater or lower precedence than the operator in question. Expressions with higher precedence operators are evaluated first, followed by expressions with lower precedence operators. The term “binding” can also be used to define the nature of precedence. Operators having a greater precedence are considered to have a tighter binding than those with lower precedence.

Whenever a group of operators appears together, they are all given equal priority and assessed according to how well they are linked.

General information regarding precedence and associativity may be found in the other sections of this section.

## Precedence and associativity of C operators

Symbol1 | Type of operation | Associativity |
---|---|---|

().-++-(postfix) | Expression | Left to right |

sizeof*+-~!++-(prefix) | Unary | Right to left |

typecasts | Unary | Right to left |

*/% | Multiplicative | Left to right |

+- | Additive | Left to right |

Bitwise shift | Left to right | |

= | Relational | Left to right |

=!= | Equality | Left to right |

Bitwise-AND | Left to right | |

^ | Bitwise-exclusive-OR | Left to right |

| | Bitwise-inclusive-OR | Left to right |

Logical-AND | Left to right | |

|| | Logical-OR | Left to right |

?: | Conditional-expression | Right to left |

=*=/=%=+=-=^=|= | Simple and compound assignment2 | Right to left |

, | Sequential evaluation | Left to right |

In the following table, operators are presented in descending order of priority. Multiple operators appearing on the same line or in a group have equal precedence if they appear in the same order. 2All assignment operators, whether simple or compound, have the same priority. A single expression can include many operators, each of which has the same precedence. Whenever multiple of these operators exist at the same level in an expression, evaluation continues according to the associativity of the operators, either from right to left or from left to right, depending on the associativity of the operators.

- The language makes no distinction between the order of operations.
- Only the sequential-evaluation (,), logical-AND (), logical-OR (||), conditional-expression (?:), and function-call operators are considered sequence points, and their operands are evaluated in a certain order as a result of their use.
- The sequential-evaluation operator (,) is guaranteed to evaluate its operands in the order in which they are passed to the operator.
- Sequence points.
- However, they only consider the operands that are required to determine the outcome of the expression in the shortest amount of time.

As a result, it is possible that certain operands of the expression will not be evaluated. For example, in the expressionxy++, the second operand, y++, is evaluated exclusively if and only if the condition x is satisfied (nonzero). As a result, if x is false, y is not increased (0).

## Examples

In the following list, you can see how the compiler binds numerous example expressions for you automatically:

Expression | Automatic Binding |
---|---|

ab || c | (ab) || c |

a = b || c | a = (b || c) |

qr || s- | (qr) || s- |

In the first expression, the bitwise-AND operator () has greater precedence than the logical-OR operator (||), which means that the bitwise-AND operator () can be used as the first operand of the logical-OR operation in that expression. The logical-OR operator (||) takes priority over the simple-assignment operator (=) in the second expression, and as a result, || is grouped as the right-hand operand in the assignment in the second expression. It should be noted that the value allocated toa is either 0 or 1 (see below).

The logical-AND operator () has a higher precedence than the logical-OR operator (||), which is put together as an operand in this case.

If, on the other hand, qrevalues to a nonzero value, s-is not assessed, and sis not decremented as a result.

Illegal Expression | Default Grouping |
---|---|

p = 0? p += 1: p += 2 | (p = 0? p += 1: p) += 2 |

The equality operator (=) has the greatest precedence in this expression, and sop = 0 is grouped with the other operands as an operand. The conditional-expression operator (?:) is the second most important operator in the language. Its first operand is equal to zero, and its second operand is equal to one. P += 2 is believed to beprather than the last operand of the conditional-expression operator, since this occurrence ofpbinds more closely to the conditional-expression operator than it does to the compound-assignment operator.

This results in a syntax error because the expression+= 2does not have a left-hand operand.

For example, you might use parenthesis to correct and explain the above example, as seen in the example below: What if (p = 0)?

## See also

C operators are a type of operator.

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## Operator Precedence – Visual Basic

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When an expression contains many operations, each portion of the expression is evaluated and resolved in a specified sequence known as operator precedence.

## Precedence Rules

It is assessed according to the principles outlined below when expressions contain operators from more than one category.

- The arithmetic and concatenation operators take precedence in the order described in the following section, and they all take precedence over the comparison, logical, and bitwise operators
- However, the comparison, logical, and bitwise operators take precedence over the logical and bitwise operators. In terms of precedence, all comparison operators are equal in importance, and all are more important than the logical and bitwise operators, but less important than the arithmetic and concatenation operators. Logical operators and bitwise operators follow the precedence hierarchy outlined in the next section, and they all have a lower precedence than the arithmetic, concatenation, and comparison operators. In the order in which they appear in the expression, operators of equal precedence are evaluated left to right from left to right.

## Precedence Order

Each of the following operators is evaluated in the following order of precedence:

### Await Operator

Exponentiation () is the process of increasing the size of a number by a factor of two. Unary identity and negation (plus and minus) Multiplication and division in floating-point numbers (*,/) Integer division is the division of two integers () A modular approach to arithmetic (Mod) Addition and subtraction (plus and minus) String concatenation is a type of string concatenation () Bit shift in arithmetic operations (,)

### Comparison Operators

All comparison operators (=,=,=,Is,IsNot,Like,TypeOf. Is,Is,IsNot,Like,TypeOf. Is)

### Logical and Bitwise Operators

Negation (Not)Conjunction (And,AndAlso)Inclusive disjunction (Or,OrElse)Exclusive disjunction Negation (Not)Conjunction (And,AndAlso) (Xor)

### Comments

The=operator is solely used as an equality comparison operator; it is not used as a comparison operator for assignment. Despite the fact that the string concatenation operator () is not an arithmetic operator, it is classified with the arithmetic operators in terms of precedence. The Is and Is Not operators are used to compare object references between two objects. In this case, they are not comparing the values of two objects; rather, they are checking to see if two object variables are referring to the same object instance.

## Associativity

The=operator is solely used as an equality comparison operator; it is not used as a comparison operator for assignments. However, despite the fact that the string concatenation operator () is not an arithmetic operator, it is classed alongside arithmetic operators in terms of precedence. Object reference comparison operators, such as theIs and IsNot operators, are used in this context. In this case, they are not comparing the values of two objects; rather, they are checking to see if two object variables correspond to the same instance of an object.

## Overriding Precedence and Associativity

You may use parenthesis to order the evaluation of some portions of an expression before other parts of the expression. This has the ability to override both the order of precedence and the associativity to the left. Visual Basic always executes the operations that are enclosed in parentheses before the operations that are not surrounded in parentheses. Unless you use parentheses within parentheses, it retains its normal precedence and associativity when enclosed in a parentheses-only structure.

Dim a, b, c, d, e, f, g are the following values: As Double a = 8.0, b = 3.0, c = 4.0, d = 2.0, e = 1.0, f = a – b + c / d * e, f = a – b + c / d * e, f = a – b + c / d * e, f = a – b + c / d * e, f = The accompanying line changes the value of f to 7.0.

A is equal to the negative of B, and B is equal to the positive of C, and C is equal to the positive of D, and D is equal to the positive of E.

The following line takes precedence over the natural operator’and the left associativity of the previous line. g = (a – (b + c)) / (d * e)’ g = (a – (b + c)) / (d * e)’ The accompanying line changes the value of g to 0.5.

## See also

- In this section you will find the following operators: = operator, is operator, isn’t operator, is, like operator, typeOf operator, await operator, operators listed by functionality, operators and expressions, operators and expressions.

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## Operators Precedence in C

The order in which terms in an expression are grouped and how an expression is evaluated is determined by the operator precedence. There are some operators that have a higher priority than others; for example, the multiplication operator has a higher priority than the addition operator. For example, consider the expression x = 7 + 3 * 2; in this case, x is assigned 13, not 20, since the operator * has a greater precedence than the operator +, and therefore it is multiplied by 3*2 before being added to 7.

Higher precedence operators in an expression will be evaluated first, followed by lower precedence operators.

Category | Operator | Associativity |
---|---|---|

Postfix | ()-. ++ – – | Left to right |

Unary | +-!~++- -(type)*sizeof | Right to left |

Multiplicative | */% | Left to right |

Additive | +- | Left to right |

Shift | Left to right | |

Relational | = | Left to right |

Equality | =!= | Left to right |

Bitwise AND | Left to right | |

Bitwise XOR | ^ | Left to right |

Bitwise OR | | | Left to right |

Logical AND | Left to right | |

Logical OR | || | Left to right |

Conditional | ?: | Right to left |

Assignment | =+=-=*=/=%=^= |= | Right to left |

Comma | , | Left to right |

## Example

Use this example to better grasp operator precedence in C: int a = 20, int b = 10, int c = 15, int d = 5, and int e;e = ((a + b) * c / d);/ (30 * 15) / 5 printf(“Value of (a + b) * c / d is: percent dn”,e);e = (((a + b) * c / (a + b) * (c / d);/ (30) * (15/5) printf(“Value of (a + b) * (c / d) is: percent dn”,e);e = a + (b * c) / d;/20 + (150/5) printf(“Value of (a + b) * c) is: percent dn”,e);return 0; When you compile and run the preceding program, you will get the following result : The value of (a + b) * c / d is as follows: 90 In this case, 90 is the value of (((a+b+c) * c)/d.

The product of (a + b) * (c / d) equals 90.

## 2.11. Order of Operations — Foundations of Python Programming

Use this example to better grasp operator precedence in C: int a = 20, int b = 10, int c = 15, int d = 5, and int e;e = ((a + b) * c / d);/ (30 * 15) / 5 printf(“Value of (a + b) * c / d is: percent dn”,e);e = (((a + b) * c) (“Value of ((a + b) * c) / d is: percent dn”,e);e = (a + b) * (c / d);/ (30) * (15/5) printf(“Value of ((a + b) * (c / d) is: percent dn”,e);e = a + (b * c) / d;/20 + (150/5) printf(“Val When you compile and run the preceding program, you will get the following result: This is the result of multiplying (a + b) by (c / d).

90 In this case, 90 is the value of (((a+b+c) * c)/d).

- It is possible to compel an expression to evaluate in the order you choose by using parentheses, which have the greatest precedence. Because expressions in parentheses are evaluated first, 2*(3-1) is 4, and (1+1)**(5-2) is 8. Because of this, 2*(3-1) is 4. As in (minute*100)/60: (minute*100)/60: You can also use parenthesis to make an expression simpler to read. In this situation, the parentheses have no effect on the outcome, but they serve to emphasize that the phrase enclosed in parenthesis will be evaluated first. Exponentiation takes priority over multiplication, thus 2**1+1 is 3 rather than 4, and 3*1**3 is 3 rather than 27. Could you please explain why? Multiplication and both division operators have the same precedence, which is higher than the precedence of addition and subtraction, which are likewise the same precedence as addition and subtraction operators. So 2*3-1gives 5 rather than 4, and 5-2*2gives 1 rather than 6. Operators that have the same precedence are evaluated in the same order from left to right. They are referred to be left-associative in algebra. Consequently, in the phrase 6-3+2, the subtraction occurs first, resulting in the number 3. After that, we add 2 to get the answer 5. If the operations had been assessed from right to left, the result would have been 6+(3+2), which equals one
- Otherwise, the result would have been 6.

Note A historical quirk has resulted in the exponentiation operator** being an exception to the left-to-right left-associative rule, as may be seen in the following example. It is recommended that while using exponentiation, you always use parenthesis to compel the precise order you desire, as seen in this example: Note This is the second method in which parentheses are utilized in Python programming language. The first method, which you’ve previously seen, is that () denotes a function call, with the inputs included within the parenthesis.

When a function object is evaluated to the left of parenthesis, it is considered a function call; otherwise, it is not considered a function call and the parentheses are not shown as being a function call.

The same inference must be made when you see parentheses: is this a function call, or is it just specifying precedence? This is something you will have to get accustomed to. Please double-check your comprehension.

- 14
- Using parentheses, the phrase is evaluated as (2*5) first, then (10 / 3), then (16-3), and then (13+1)
- 24
- Remember that * takes priority over –
- 3 Remember that / takes precedence over –

An animation of the above-mentioned phrase may be seen here: You have attempted a number of things on this website.

## 2.9. Order of Operations — How to Think like a Computer Scientist: Interactive Edition

When an expression contains more than one operator, the order in which the operators are evaluated is determined by the rules of precedence. Python uses the same precedence rules for its mathematical operators as mathematics does for its mathematical operators.

- If you use parentheses to compel an expression to evaluate in the order you choose, you can achieve the best results this way. Because expressions in parentheses are evaluated first, 2*(3-1) is 4, and (1+1)**(5-2) is 8. Because of this, 2*(3-1) is 4. Using parenthesis to make an equation simpler to comprehend, such as (minute*100)/60, is likewise permissible, even if it has no effect on the final result. Due to the fact that exponentiation takes precedence over division, 2**1+1 is 3 rather than 4, and 3*1**3 is 3 rather than 27. Could you please explain why? Multiplication and both division operators have the same precedence, which is higher than the precedence of addition and subtraction, which are both the same precedence as addition and subtraction operators. So 2*3-1gives 5 rather than 4, and 5-2*2gives 1 rather than 6. Operators having the same precedence (with the exception of**) are evaluated from left to right in the evaluation process. They are referred to be left-associative in algebra. Consequently, in the phrase 6-3+2, the subtraction occurs first, resulting in the number 3. After that, we add 2 to get the answer 5. If the operations had been assessed from right to left, the result would have been 6+(3+2), which equals one
- Otherwise, the result would have been 6.

Note The exponentiation operator** is an exception to the left-to-right left-associative rule since it multiplies numbers from one to one hundred. It is recommended that while using exponentiation, you always use parenthesis to compel the precise order you desire, as seen in this example: See the Operator Precedence Table for a complete list of all the operators covered in this book. You will also see a large number of non-mathematical Python operators in the near future. Please double-check your comprehension.

- Note The exponentiation operator** is an exception to the left-to-right left-associative rule since it multiplies numbers from one to a hundred and vice versa. It is recommended that while using exponentiation, you always use parenthesis to compel the precise order you want to see: You may find all of the operators discussed in this book in the precedence table. Numerous non-mathematical Python operators will be introduced in the near future. Examine your comprehension

- The value of the following expression: 768
- Exponentiation takes priority over multiplication, however the order of precedence is from left to right! Consequently, 2 ** 3 is 8, 2 ** 8 is 256 and 256 * 3 is 768
- 128. Exponentiation (**) is performed from right to left, so start with 2 ** 3 and work your way down. 12
- There are two exponentiations
- 256
- It is important to remember to multiply by three.

Here are animations for the expressions listed above: You have attempted a number of things on this website.

## Operator precedence – JavaScript

The order in which operators are parsed in relation to one another is determined by the operator precedence. Operators with a higher precedence are used as operands for operators with a lower precedence in the following way:

## Precedence And Associativity

Consider the following equation, which may be described by the representation shown below. Remember that both OP 1 and OP 2 are only placeholders for OPerators to fill in the spaces. If OP1 and OP2 have different precedence levels (as shown in the table below), the operator with the higher precedence level takes precedence over the other, and associativity is not taken into consideration. Take note of how multiplication takes priority over addition and is run first, despite the fact that addition is stated first in the source code.

When you use assignment operators, you may write: with the anticipated consequence thataandbget the value 5, which is a right-associative expression.

First and foremost, bis is set to 5.

Another example is the fact that the unique exponentiation operator has right-associativity, whilst other arithmetic operators have left-associativity, and vice versa.

Code | Output |

functionecho(name,num){console.log(“Evaluating the “+name+” side”);returnnum;}console.log(echo(“left”,6)/echo(“right”,2)); | Evaluating the left side Evaluating the right side 3 |

functionecho(name,num){console.log(“Evaluating the “+name+” side”);returnnum;}console.log(echo(“left”,2)**echo(“right”,3)); | Evaluating the left side Evaluating the right side 8 |

In situations when there are numerous operators with the same precedence, the difference in associativity comes into play.

As seen in the above example, associativity has no effect on the result when just one operator or operators with varying precedences are used. Examine the output in the following example to see how associativity impacts the result when multiples of the same operator are used.

Code | Output |

functionecho(name,num){console.log(“Evaluating the “+name+” side”);returnnum;}console.log(echo(“left”,6)/echo(“middle”,2)/echo(“right”,3)); | Evaluating the left side Evaluating the middle side Evaluating the right side 1 |

functionecho(name,num){console.log(“Evaluating the “+name+” side”);returnnum;}console.log(echo(“left”,2)**echo(“middle”,3)**echo(“right”,2)); | Evaluating the left side Evaluating the middle side Evaluating the right side 512 |

functionecho(name,num){console.log(“Evaluating the “+name+” side”);returnnum;}console.log((echo(“left”,2)**echo(“middle”,3))**echo(“right”,2)); | Evaluating the left side Evaluating the middle side Evaluating the right side 64 |

Because division is left associative, the code snippets above show that 6 3 2 is the same as (6 3 2), and vice versa, as seen in the examples above. When it comes to exponentiation, on the other hand, it is right-associative, which means that 2 ** 3 2 is the same as 2 ** (3 2) Doing (2 ** 3) ** 2changes the sequence of the operations and resulting in the 64 shown in the table above. Keep in mind that precedence takes priority over associativity. Consequently, when exponentiation and division are combined, the exponentiation happens first, followed by the division.

Similarly, the ratio 2 ** 3 / 3 ** 2 yields the result of 0.8898989898989 because it is the same as (2 ** 3) / (3 ** 2).

### Note on grouping and short-circuiting

Grouping is stated as having the highest priority in the precedence hierarchy in the table below. However, this does not necessarily imply that the phrase included within the grouping symbols(.) is evaluated first, particularly when it comes to short-circuiting situations. The term “short-circuiting” refers to conditional evaluation in jargon. For example, in the equation a(b + c), ifaisfalsy, the sub-expression(b + c)will not even be evaluated, even if it is enclosed in parenthesis, as in the following example.

Here are a few more illustrations.

B.

## Examples

The precedence and associativity of the C++ operators are listed in the following table. Operators are presented in descending order of precedence from the top to the bottom.

Precedence | Operator | Description | Associativity |
---|---|---|---|

1 | : | Scope resolution | Left-to-right |

2 | a++a- | Suffix/postfixincrement and decrement | |

type ()type | Functional cast | ||

a() | Function call | ||

a | Subscript | ||

.- | Member access | ||

3 | ++a-a | Prefixincrement and decrement | Right-to-left |

+a-a | Unaryplus and minus | ||

!~ | Logical NOTandbitwise NOT | ||

(type) | C-style cast | ||

*a | Indirection(dereference) | ||

a | Address-of | ||

sizeof | Size-of | ||

co_await |
await-expression(C++20) | ||

newnew | Dynamic memory allocation | ||

deletedelete | Dynamic memory deallocation | ||

4 | .*- * | Pointer-to-member | Left-to-right |

5 | a*ba/ba%b | Multiplication, division, and remainder | |

6 | a+ba-b | Addition and subtraction | |

7 | Bitwiseleft shift and right shift | ||

8 | = | Three-way comparison operator(since C++20) | |

9 | = | Forrelational operatorsand ≤ andand ≥ respectively | |

10 | =!= | Forequality operators= and ≠ respectively | |

11 | a b | Bitwise AND | |

12 | ^ | Bitwise XOR(exclusive or) | |

13 | | | Bitwise OR(inclusive or) | |

14 | Logical AND | ||

15 | || | Logical OR | |

16 | a?b:c | Ternary conditional | Right-to-left |

throw | throw operator | ||

co_yield |
yield-expression(C++20) | ||

= | Direct assignment(provided by default for C++ classes) | ||

+=-= | Compound assignmentby sum and difference | ||

*=/=%= | Compound assignmentby product, quotient, and remainder | ||

= | Compound assignmentby bitwise left shift and right shift | ||

=^=|= | Compound assignmentby bitwise AND, XOR, and OR | ||

17 | , | Comma | Left-to-right |

- Sizeof does not allow for a C-style type cast: the expressionsizeof(int)*pis unambiguously interpreted as(sizeof (int))*p, but notsizeof ((int)* p)
- The expression in the middle of the conditional operator (between?and:) is parsed as if it were parenthesized: its precedence relative to?and: is ignored
- And

An operator that appears on some row of the table above with a precedence will be tied to its arguments more tightly (as if by parentheses) than any operator that appears on a row further below it with a lower precedence when parsing an expression. For example, the expressionsstd: coutaband* p ++are parsed as(std: couta)band*(p ++), not asstd: cout(ab)or(* p)++, and not as(std: couta)band*(p ++). Operators with the same precedence are tied to their arguments in the direction of their associativity, but operators with different precedence are not.

In the case of unary operators, associativity specification is superfluous and is simply included for completeness’ sake: unary prefix operators always associate right-to-left (delete++* pisdelete (++(* p)) and unary postfix operators always associate left-to-right (a+is((a)++).

b++is parsed(a. b)++and nota. (b ++). Operator overloading has no effect on the order in which operators are executed. Because the arithmetic left shift takes priority over the conditional operator, the standard: couta?b:c;expression is parsed as(std: couta)?b:c;

### Notes

In contrast to order of evaluation, which is a runtime notion, precedence and associativity are compile-time concepts that are independent of the order of evaluation. The precedence levels are not specified in the standard itself. It is from the grammar that they are derived. Due to the fact that const cast, static cast, dynamic cast, reinterpret cast, typeid, sizeof., noexceptandalignofare always true, they are not included in this list. A number of the operators have different spellings (for example, andfor, orfor, notfor!, and so on.) Assignment operators have higher precedence in C than the ternary conditional operator, which has the same precedence as assignment operators.

For more information, go to the appropriate C page.

### See also

Common operators | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

assignment | increment decrement | arithmetic | logical | comparison | member access | other |

a=ba+=ba-=ba*=ba/=ba%=ba=ba|=ba^=ba=ba=b | ++ a- aa ++ a – | + a- aa+ba-ba*ba/ba%b~aaba|ba^babab | ! aaba||b | a=ba!=bababa=ba=ba=b | a* aaa -ba. b a -* ba. * b | a (.) a, ba?b:c |

Special operators | ||||||

static_castconverts one type to another related typedynamic_castconverts within inheritance hierarchiesconst_castadds or removescvqualifiersreinterpret_castconverts type to unrelated typeC-style castconverts one type to another by a mix ofstatic_cast,const_cast, andreinterpret_castnewcreates objects with dynamic storage durationdeletedestructs objects previously created by the new expression and releases obtained memory areasizeofqueries the size of a typesizeof.queries the size of aparameter pack(since C++11)typeidqueries the type information of a typenoexceptchecks if an expression can throw an exception(since C++11)alignofqueries alignment requirements of a type(since C++11) |

## C Operator Precedence – cppreference.com

The precedence and associativity of the C operators are listed in the following table. Operators are presented in descending order of precedence from the top to the bottom.

Precedence | Operator | Description | Associativity |
---|---|---|---|

1 | ++- | Suffix/postfix increment and decrement | Left-to-right |

() | Function call | ||

Array subscripting | |||

. | Structure and union member access | ||

– | Structure and union member access through pointer | ||

(type) | Compound literal (C99) | ||

2 | ++- | Prefix increment and decrement | Right-to-left |

+- | Unary plus and minus | ||

!~ | Logical NOT and bitwise NOT | ||

(type) | Cast | ||

* | Indirection (dereference) | ||

Address-of | |||

sizeof | Size-of | ||

_Alignof | Alignment requirement (C11) | ||

3 | */% | Multiplication, division, and remainder | Left-to-right |

4 | +- | Addition and subtraction | |

5 | Bitwise left shift and right shift | ||

6 | = | For relational operatorsand ≤ respectively | |

= | For relational operatorsand ≥ respectively | ||

7 | =!= | For relational = and ≠ respectively | |

8 | Bitwise AND | ||

9 | ^ | Bitwise XOR (exclusive or) | |

10 | | | Bitwise OR (inclusive or) | |

11 | Logical AND | ||

12 | || | Logical OR | |

13 | ?: | Ternary conditional | Right-to-left |

14 | = | Simple assignment | |

+=-= | Assignment by sum and difference | ||

*=/=%= | Assignment by product, quotient, and remainder | ||

= | Assignment by bitwise left shift and right shift | ||

=^=|= | Assignment by bitwise AND, XOR, and OR | ||

15 | , | Comma | Left-to-right |

- A type cast cannot be used as the operand of the prefix++and-function. Some phrases are prohibited by this rule because they are grammatically incorrect but are not conceptually incorrect. Some compilers do not follow this guideline and instead identify the incompatibility semantically. Sizeof cannot have a type cast as an operand: the expressionsizeof (int) * piis unambiguously interpreted assizeof(int)*p, but notsizeof(int)*p
- The expression in the middle of a conditional operator (between?and:) is parsed as if it were parenthesized: its precedence relative to?and: is ignored
- The left operands of assignment operators must be unary (level-2 non-cast) expressions. Some phrases are prohibited by this rule because they are grammatically incorrect but are not conceptually incorrect. Many compilers do not adhere to this criterion and instead discover invalidity using semantic analysis. For example, the expression e=ad?a ++:a=dis an expression that cannot be parsed as a result of the preceding rule. Although many compilers disregard this rule, many of them interpret the code as ase=(((ad)?(a ++:a)=d), and then generate an error since it is semantically incorrect.

An operator that appears on a certain row will be tied to its arguments more tightly (as if by parentheses) than any other operator that appears on a row that is farther below it while an expression is being parsed. Example: The expression* p++is processed as*(p++), rather than as(* p)++, when it appears in a document. A cell’s operators that are in the same row as each other (there may be numerous rows of operators listed in a single cell) are assessed with equal precedence and are evaluated in the direction indicated by the arrow.

### Notes

Precedence and associativity are not affected by the order in which they are evaluated. The precedence levels are not specified in the standard itself. It is from the grammar that they are derived. In C++, the conditional operator has the same precedence as assignment operators, and the prefix++and- and assignment operators do not have any limits on the operands that they can accept as arguments. The specification of associativity in unary operators is redundant, and it’s only included for the sake of completeness: unary prefix operators always associate right to left, and unary postfix operators always associate left to right (sizeof++* pissizeof(++(* p)), and unary postfix operators always associate left to right (a++is((a)++).

b++is parsed(a.

(b ++).

### References

The order in which operator arguments are evaluated at run time.

Common operators | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

assignment | increment decrement | arithmetic | logical | comparison | member access | other |

a=ba+=ba-=ba*=ba/=ba%=ba=ba|=ba^=ba=ba=b | ++ a- aa ++ a – | + a- aa+ba-ba*ba/ba%b~aaba|ba^babab | ! aaba||b | a=ba!=bababa=ba=b | a* aaa -ba. b | a (.) a, b(type)a?:sizeof _Alignof(since C11) |