The ALU performs simple addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and logic operations, such as OR and AND. The memory stores the program’s instructions and data.
- 1 What is ALU and its function?
- 2 What is the measurement of the amount of RAM recommended for most systems today?
- 3 Which unit is called as ALU?
- 4 What is arithmetic and logic unit in computer?
- 5 What are the control unit and arithmetic logic unit components of a processor?
- 6 Which of the following operation is performed by the ALU Mcq?
- 7 How do you know how much RAM is needed to run a program quizlet?
- 8 How much RAM is needed?
- 9 What is RAM used for?
- 10 How does an arithmetic logic unit ALU perform arithmetic?
- 11 How do you make an arithmetic logic unit?
- 12 Where is the arithmetic logic unit located?
- 13 What is the arithmetic logic unit quizlet?
- 14 How many units do we have in ALU?
- 15 Chapter 6 Flashcards
- 16 Chapter 6 – Understanding and Assessing Hardware: Evaluating You System Flashcards by Alana Leclair
- 17 How The Computer Works: The CPU and Memory
- 18 arithmetic-logic unit
- 19 Learn about this topicin these articles:
What is ALU and its function?
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logic operations. It represents the fundamental building block of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer.
What is the measurement of the amount of RAM recommended for most systems today?
The baseline for RAM in a computer is 4GB; typically, it will do the job – just don’t expect to have several applications open at the same time without affecting performance. A mid-range configuration may require double that and high-end gaming systems and workstations need as much as 16GB or 32GB.
Which unit is called as ALU?
In computing, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers. This is in contrast to a floating-point unit (FPU), which operates on floating point numbers.
What is arithmetic and logic unit in computer?
The arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is that functional part of the digital computer that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on machine words that represent operands. In many CPUs, separate units exist for arithmetic operations (the arithmetic unit, AU) and for logic operations (the logic unit, LU).
What are the control unit and arithmetic logic unit components of a processor?
The central processing unit (CPU) consists of six main components: control unit (CU) arithmetic logic unit (ALU) registers. Control unit
- it fetches, decodes and executes instructions.
- it issues control signals that control hardware.
- it moves data around the system.
Which of the following operation is performed by the ALU Mcq?
Explanation: ALU is a combinational electronic circuit which basically performs all the logical or the bitwise operations and the arithmetic operations.
How do you know how much RAM is needed to run a program quizlet?
How do you know how much RAM is needed to run a program? All software lists the minimum amount required to run the program successfully.
How much RAM is needed?
We recommend 4BG for casual internet browsing and emails, at least 8GB for intermediate people using spreadsheets and flash games, then at least 32GB for gamers. Not enough RAM will slow your computer.
What is RAM used for?
Random access memory (RAM) is a computer’s short-term memory, which it uses to handle all active tasks and apps. None of your programs, files, games, or streams would work without RAM.
How does an arithmetic logic unit ALU perform arithmetic?
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logic operations. The control unit tells the ALU what operation to perform on that data, and the ALU stores the result in an output register. The control unit moves the data between these registers, the ALU, and memory.
How do you make an arithmetic logic unit?
Building the ALU
- Step 1: Add the Two Input Pins.
- Step 2: Add the Adder/Subtractor and Gates.
- Step 3: Add the Multiplexers.
- Step 4: Add Controls.
- Step 5: Add a Splitter.
- Step 6: Add Another OR Gate And a NOT Gate.
- Step 7: Add a Result Pin for the MUX.
- Step 8: Add Negative, Carry, and Overflow Pins.
Where is the arithmetic logic unit located?
Arithmetic Logic Units (ALU): An Introduction. An arithmetic unit, or ALU, enables computers to perform mathematical operations on binary numbers. They can be found at the heart of every digital computer and are one of the most important parts of a CPU (Central Processing Unit).
What is the arithmetic logic unit quizlet?
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise logical operations on integer binary numbers. It tells the computer’s memory, arithmetic/logic unit and input and output devices how to respond to a program’s instructions.
How many units do we have in ALU?
In some processors, the ALU is divided into two units: an arithmetic unit (AU) and a logic unit (LU). Some processors contain more than one AU — for example, one for fixed-point operations and another for floating-point operations.
Chapter 6 Flashcards
The processing power of a CPU is defined by a combination of the clock speed, the number of cores, and the quantity of RAM memory available to the CPU. The term ” Law” refers to the rule of thumb that predicts that the number of transistors on a computer processor will double every two years. A) Charles’ B) Moore’s C) Intel’s D) Boyle’s A) Charles’ B) Moore’s C) Intel’s D) Boyle’s Which of the following factors does not influence the processing power of a CPU? A) Clock speed B) Number of cores C) Amount of cache memory D) The pace at which the motherboard operates.
In this order: A) retrieve B) encode C) execute D) store Which two components make up the central processing unit (CPU)?
A) Central processing unit B) cache C) front side bus D) clock The amount of cache memory available depends on how close you are to .
CPU overclocking, or running the CPU at a quicker speed than the manufacturer suggests, is referred to as .
- A) within the CPU itself B) on the hard disk drive C) on a nearby solid-state drive (SSD) D) in a cloud-based storage system A good example of storage is random access memory (RAM).
- A) gigabytes B) gigahertz C) gigabits A) gigabytes B) gigahertz D) the number of machine cycles A memory-management method called as allows Windows to track which apps you use the most often and preloads them into your system memory as soon as they are detected.
- A) Make a list of all of the applications you want to run at the same time, as well as the amount of RAM each requires, and add them all up.
- C) Subtract the number of memory slots that have been utilised from the total number of memory slots.
- When it comes to hard disks, access time is expressed as a number in .
- B) bits per second C) milliseconds B) bits per second D) Kilobytes is a unit of measurement for data storage.
- A mechanical hard drive is a type of hard drive that is mechanical in nature.
A laser burns small holes into a disc in the form of a pattern.
C) Electronic memory is a type of storage device that stores data on chips.
Which of the following does not qualify as a long-term storage solution?
D) Solid-State Drive (SSD) The has the most storage capacity of any available storage device.
There are four types of connectors: A) HDMI, B), DVI, C), USB, and D).
A) Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) B) CPU C) ALU D) Solid State Drive A(n) permits the computer to drive the speaker system over a network connection.
A) seven; B) eight; C) six; D) twelve.
A) identify and remove malware B) label damaged memory cells C) improve the efficiency with which the hard disk operates D) Delete everything from your Startup folder.
A) defragment your hard drive B) uninstall spyware applications C) delete any superfluous files D) clean out your Startup folder.
Creating a backup is the first step.
Restore is the third step.
A) Using the most recent version of software items can increase the reliability of your system.
B) An accumulation of temporary Internet files has no effect on your computer’s overall performance.
d) When you defragment your hard disk, it operates at a higher efficiency.
A) it has been rewritten seven times B) was removed from the list.
The central processing unit (CPU) is positioned on the .
The central processing unit (CPU) is composed of two units: the control unit and the .
It is referred to as the .
CPU overclocking, or running the CPU at a quicker speed than the manufacturer suggests, is referred to as .
The CPU’s memory is a kind of random-access memory (RAM) that transfers data to the CPU for processing considerably more quickly than bringing data in from the computer’s RAM does.
The amount of time it takes for a storage device to identify and make available stored data for processing is referred to as time.
mechanical hard drive; hard drive; hard disk; mechanical hard drive drive Drives are 100 times quicker than mechanical hard drives in terms of performance.
drives operate with little noise and generate very little heat, and they consume extremely little electricity.
When reading and writing data, optical drives make use of the a(n) symbol.
This type of stoppage of the hard drive, which frequently results in data loss, is referred to as a(n)_._ Because data is copied over two drives, it enhances disk writing performance.
Multi-channel sound is a form of audio system in which the listener perceives the sound as though it is coming from numerous speakers.
The audio subsystem is made up of the speakers and an a(n) amplifier.
There are several programs offered by computer manufacturers to help decrease the quantity of computers that end up in landfills.
The reliability of desktop computer systems is lower than that of laptop PCs.
Multiple cores on a single CPU chip allow the execution of two or more sets of instructions at the same time, depending on the configuration.
When comparing cache memory levels, the Level 1 cache typically has the least amount of storage space.
t/f: t/f: The price of RAM is often quite consistent.
t/f: Video cards are built with their own on-board memory storage.
t/f: Three-dimensional sound is distinct from surround-sound.
Match the definition of each of the following terms to the phrase it refers to: Tracks I.
Random Access Memory II.
Clock speed Quad-core processor (number four) V.ROM A CPU with four cores is an example of this.
Match each of the terms in the following list to its corresponding purpose: I.Virtual Memory (also known as virtual memory) II.physical memory is a type of memory that exists in the physical world.
IV.memory cache for temporary storage V.Memory for video A.temporary storage space B.used by a visual card C.space on a hard drive for data that does not fit in RAM A.temporary storage space B.used by a video card D.has the capability of being accessed more quickly than normal RAM.
Match each of the words in the following list to its corresponding function: CPU, ALU, and cache are the first three components.
D.a approach for utilizing more than one drive in a system, and E.the ability to execute arithmetic computations on the fly.
Chapter 6 – Understanding and Assessing Hardware: Evaluating You System Flashcards by Alana Leclair
An ALU is a device that performs fundamental arithmetic and logic operations. The arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are examples of arithmetic operations. Comparisons of values, such as the NOT, AND, and OR operators, are examples of logic operations. Everything in a computer is stored and controlled in the form of binary integers, which are numbers between 0 and 1. The manipulation of binary integers is made feasible by the use of transistor switches, which have just two potential states: open and closed.
- When a transistor is closed and there is current flowing through it, it depicts the number 1.
- One transistor can be used to control the operation of another transistor, thereby switching the transistor switch on or off based on the state of the second transistor.
- Among the most basic types of operations is the NOT gate.
- This algorithm takes only a single input and produces only a single output that is always the polar opposite of that input.
- If either the first or second input is a 1, the outcome of the OR gate is a 1.
- The logic of the OR gate is depicted in this diagram: The AND gate produces a 1 only if both the first and second inputs are one digits in length.
- If this is not the case, the outcome is a 1.
How The Computer Works: The CPU and Memory
- The arithmetic/logic unit is capable of doing four different types of arithmetic operations, sometimes known as mathematical calculations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, among others. The arithmetic/logic unit, as its name indicates, is capable of performing both arithmetic and logical operations. A logical operation is often characterized by a comparison. The device has the capability of comparing numbers, letters, and special characters. The computer can then take appropriate action in response to the outcome of the comparison. Obviously, this is a really crucial talent. Using comparison, a computer may determine, for example, if there are vacant seats on flights, whether charge-card consumers have surpassed their credit limits, and whether one candidate for Congress has received more votes than another candidate. Relational operators are the symbols that allow you to specify the sort of comparison that you want the computer to execute on your data. The equal sign(=), the less-than symbol(), and the greater-than symbol() are the three most often used relational operators in mathematics. Registers: Areas for Temporary Storage Registers are temporary storage places for instructions or data that may be accessed at any time. The fact that they are not a part of the memory means that they are special supplementary storage sites that have the advantage of being faster. In order to accept, hold, and send instructions or data as well as execute arithmetic or logical comparisons at fast speeds, registers function under the supervision of the control unit. As a business owner would use a cash register, the control unit employs a data storage register as a temporary, easy place to store information that is utilized in transactions. Computers typically allocate unique tasks to certain registers, which may include the following registers:
- An accumulator is a device that accumulates the results of calculations. When an instruction or piece of data is executed, an address register keeps track of where it was executed from in memory. Similarly to how each property on a street is recognized by its address, each memory storage space in memory is identified by its address. A storage register is a register that temporarily stores data that has been taken from or is going to be transferred to memory. It is a general-purpose register that may be used for a variety of purposes.
- Memory and storage are two terms that are used interchangeably. RAM (Random Access Memory) is another term for memory that is used interchangeably in the computer industry. Memory is sometimes referred to by other names, including primary storage, primary memory, main storage, internal storage, main memory, and RAM (Random Access Memory). In a computer, memory refers to the storage area where data and instructions are stored for later processing. Memory is distinct from the central processing unit, despite the fact that they are intimately related. Memory only retains program instructions or data for as long as the program to which they apply is actively running in memory. It is not possible to keep these things in memory when the application is not running for three reasons:
- A large proportion of computer memory is designed to hold stuff only while the computer’s power is switched on
- Data is erased when the machine is turned off. Whenever more than one program is executing at the same time (as is frequently the case on large computers and occasionally on tiny computers), a single application cannot claim exclusive ownership of the available memory. It’s possible that there isn’t enough space in memory to keep all of the processed data.
What is the process through which data and instructions are transferred from an input device into memory? They are sent by the control unit. Similar to this, when the moment is correct, the control unit passes these items from memory to the arithmetic/logic unit, which then performs an arithmetic operation or a logical operation on the information. When the information is finished being processed, it is delivered to memory, which retains it until the information is ready to be sent to an output unit.
Later in this chapter, we will go into the physical components of memory, namely memory chips.
We have the following items in our kitchen:
- In addition to the refrigerator, we have a counter where we place all of our vegetables before placing them on the cutting board for chopping
- A cutting board on the counter where we chop the vegetables
- A recipe that specifies which vegetables to chop
- And a cutting board with space reserved for partially chopped piles of vegetables that we intend to chop further or mix with other partially chopped piles of vegetables. a mixing bowl on the counter where we may combine and store the salad
- A place in the refrigerator where we can keep the mixed salad once it has been created
The following is the procedure for preparing the salad: remove the vegetables from the refrigerator and place them on the counter top; arrange some vegetables on the chopping board according to the recipe; chop the vegetables, possibly storing some partially chopped vegetables temporarily on the corners of the cutting board; place all of the vegetables in a large mixing bowl to be either returned to the fridge or served immediately at the dinner table; repeat the process with the remaining vegetables.
- The refrigerator serves as a substitute for secondary (disk) storage space.
- The counter top is analogous to the motherboard of a computer; everything takes place on the counter (inside the computer).
- The recipe serves as the control unit, instructing you on how to proceed on the cutting board (ALU).
- It is important to note that while the counter top (RAM) is faster to reach than the fridge (drive), it cannot store as much data and cannot store it for as long a time period.
- The corners of the cutting board are quite convenient for chopping, but they are not large enough to store much.
- Now, for a more technical illustration.
- Assume that the software is responsible for calculating the compensation of an employee.
- Other information pertaining to the pay calculation—overtime hours, bonuses, deductions, and so on—is stored locally in memory for quick access.
- Whenever the CPU completes computations for one employee, the data for the next employee is read from secondary storage and loaded into memory, and finally into the registers, by the CPU itself.
The features of the various types of data storage available in the storage hierarchy are summarized in the following table.
|Storage||Speed||Capacity||Relative Cost ($)||Permanent?|
|Floppy Disk||Very Slow||Low||Low||Yes|
|Hard Disk||Moderate||Very High||Very Low||Yes|
- As a result of the qualities indicated in the table, modern computers are constructed with this hierarchy in mind. It has shown to be the most cost-effective method of obtaining the functionality. However, as RAM grows more affordable, quicker, and perhaps permanent, it is possible that disks may become obsolete as an internal storage medium. Removable drives, such as Zip disks or CDs (which we cover in full in the online reading on storage devices), will very certainly continue to be used as a way of physically transferring huge amounts of data into computers for the foreseeable future. But even this use of disks will most likely be phased out in favor of the Internet as the primary (and eventually sole) means of moving data in the future. Floppy disk drives are already being phased out, as evidenced by the fact that Apple’s new IMac Macintosh does not have one. Within the next five years, the majority of new computer designs will only contain floppy drives as an optional feature for users who still have outdated floppy disks that they must continue to use. See the How Stuff Works sections on computer memory for further information on the computer’s memory structure. This is an optional piece of reading. The Process through which the CPU Executes Programming Instructions Now let’s have a look at how the central processing unit (CPU) works in conjunction with memory to execute a computer program. Only one instruction will be examined in detail, and we will be looking at how that instruction is performed. In truth, most computers today are only capable of processing a single instruction at a time, although at a blisteringly fast rate. Personal computers can execute instructions in less than one millionth of a second, while supercomputers, which are capable of processing instructions in less than one billionth of a second, are also available.
Before an instruction can be performed, it is necessary to load program instructions and data into memory from an input device or a secondary storage device, respectively (the process is further complicated by the fact that, as we noted earlier,the data will probably make a temporary stop in a register). As seen in Figure 2, once the relevant data and instructions have been loaded into memory, the centralprocessing unit conducts the four processes outlined below for each instruction.
- When an instruction is requested from memory, the control unit retrieves it (gets it). Decoding an instruction (determining what it means) is performed by the control unit, which then orders that the relevant data be sent from memory to the arithmetic/logic unit. Instruction time, often known as I-time, refers to the first two phases of the process. The arithmetic/logic unit is responsible for carrying out the arithmetic or logical operation. Thus, the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) is given control and is responsible for actually performing the operation on the data
- The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) then saves the result of the operation in memory or a register. Steps 3 and 4 are often referred to as execution time, or E-time.
It is finally directed by the control unit for memory to release the result to either an output device or a secondary storage device. In computing, the machine cycle is defined as the combination of I-time and E-time. Figure 3 depicts an instruction as it progresses through a machine cycle. Each central processor unit is equipped with an internal clock that generates pulses at a predetermined frequency in order to keep all computer functions running in sync. When a single machine-cycle instruction is made up of a large number of smaller instructions, each of which must require at least one clock cycle, the instruction is considered as a whole.
- Just as there are many distinct languages that individuals can communicate in, there are many different types of CPUs that can communicate with each other through an instruction set.
- It is one thing to have instructions and data stored someplace in memory; it is quite another for the control unit to be able to locate those instructions and data.
- Each instruction and each piece of data has a unique address that points to the area in memory where they are stored.
- Furthermore, much like with the mailboxes, the location’s address numbers remain the same, but the contents (instructions and data) of the locations may vary.
- Memory locations, in contrast to mailboxes, can only contain a limited quantity of data; an address can only carry a specific number of bytes – typically two bytes in a modern computer.
- If a payroll software, for example, gives instructions to enter the rate of pay in location 3 and the number of hours worked in location 6, the payroll program is said to be in compliance.
- This is how the employee’s wage is calculated.
- The actual address numbers are not important to programmers who use programming languages since each data address is referred to by a name, which makes it unnecessary for them to be concerned.
The address is referred to as a symbolic address. The names of the symbolic address names in this case are Rate, Hours, and Salary.
- With an understanding of how computers function on an abstract level, we will examine the physical components that make up the interior of a modern computer’s chassis. Continue reading the needed material by clicking here.
The fundamental structure of a computer system. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a publishing company that publishes encyclopedias.
Learn about this topicin these articles:
- Architecture and organization are important concepts in computer science. A control unit, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), a memory unit, and input/output (I/O) controllers are all components of a computer. Basic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as well as logic operations such as OR and AND, are performed by the ALU. The instructions and data for the program are stored in the memory. The control unit is responsible for retrieving data and commands from memory and. More information may be found here. Functional features of an indigital computer. (3) A control unit, (4) an arithmetic-logic unit, and (5) a memory unit Several different types of devices are utilized to enter data and program instructions into a computer while also gaining access to the results of any processing action that has taken place. Keyboards and optical scanners are examples of common input devices, whereas printers and displays are examples of common output devices. The… More information may be found here.
relation to central processing unit
- The main memory is passed to the arithmetic-logic unit for processing, which includes the four basic arithmetic functions (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division), as well as certain logic operations such as data comparison, and the selection of a desired problem-solving procedure or a viable alternative based on predetermined decision criteria. incentral processing unit More information may be found here. Central processing unit (CPU) in a computer It is made up of an arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) and control circuits, among other things. When doing fundamental arithmetic and logic operations, the ALU performs them, and the control section decides the order of operations to be performed, including branch instructions that move control from one area of the program to another. Despite the fact that the primary memory was traditionally regarded. More information may be found here.