Arithmetic Density Relates The Number Of People To What? (TOP 5 Tips)

Arithmetic density, also known as real density, is very simply the total number of people divided by the total land area. Physiological density is the number of people per unit area of arable land.

What is arithmetic population density used for?

Arithmetic population density allows us to look at the population of a town expressed as an average per unit area. This figure is calculated by dividing the population of a town by the number of square kilometers that make up the town.

How do you find the arithmetic density of a population?

Arithmetic Density = Total Population / Total Land Area.

Is arithmetic density a good way to show population density for countries?

Arithmetic density is more useful when you study homogeneous areas, like single cities or towns, where populations are fairly evenly-distributed.

How is density related to population?

The number of individuals living within that specific location determines the population density, or the number of individuals divided by the size of the area. Population density can be used to describe the location, growth, and migration of many organisms.

What is arithmetic density in human geography?

The first method used to measure population density is the arithmetic density, which is the total number of people in any given area as compared to one square unit of land. The total number of people is divided by, for example, one kilometer, to determine the average density on that acre.

What does arithmetic density reveal?

Arithmetic density, also known as real density, is very simply the total number of people divided by the total land area. This measurement is often used to estimate how long a land and its resources can support its population.

What is an example of arithmetic density?

Arithmetic Density One can find this by dividing the total number of people in an area by the total land area. For example, to find the arithmetic density for the US, you divide the amount of people (300 million) by the amount of land (3.7 million square miles) and you get 80 people per each square mile.

How do you find the arithmetic mean?

One method is to calculate the arithmetic mean. To do this, add up all the values and divide the sum by the number of values. For example, if there are a set of “n” numbers, add the numbers together for example: a + b + c + d and so on. Then divide the sum by “n”.

What does high arithmetic density mean?

Filters. (geography) The population density measured as the number of people per unit area of land. noun.

What are density dependent factors?

Density-dependent factors include disease, competition, and predation. Density-dependant factors can have either a positive or a negative correlation to population size. With a positive relationship, these limiting factors increase with the size of the population and limit growth as population size increases.

HOW DO concentration and density relate to distribution of population?

How do concentration and density relate to distribution of population? But the population distribution is changing from relatively clustered in the Northeast to more evenly dispersed across the country. Remember, concentration is not the same as density.

What is density of population Brainly?

Population density is a measurement of population per unit area, or exceptionally unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. Population density is obtained by dividing the total number of people in a place by the area of that place.

2.6 MEASURING THE IMPACT OF POPULATION – Introduction to Human Geography

Remember the parallel between Russia and Bangladesh we made earlier? There are several methods of calculating the pressure that populations place on the land that they live, and we will cover these methods in this portion of the book. You’ll recall that we started out by looking at the number of people in each country. This is an excellent place to start, however the limits are very clear at this point. Countries that are physically larger can accommodate a greater number of people. To do this, we need a mechanism that transitions from a measure of the general population to some form of per capita measurement.

The simplest type of density is arithmetic density.

Due to the widespread usage of the metric system around the world, the area is often measured in square kilometers (Figure 2.17).

Arithmetic Density 201514, and the source of the work is Original Work.

  1. The numerator and denominator of physiological density are the same (population), but the denominator is different.
  2. Deserts, lakes, mountaintops, and other such areas that are not exploited for agriculture are deducted from the total amount of land available for cultivation.
  3. Please keep in mind that food that has been harvested or hunted from non-agricultural land is not included in this total figure.
  4. Physiological Density 201515Author |David DorrellSource |Original WorkLicense |CC BY SA 4.0 Figure 2.18 |
  5. Instead of utilizing the entire population, only farmers are utilized (Figure 2.19).
  6. Agriculture in developed nations is automated, and there are few farmers per capita.
  7. Because agricultural densities are high, there are more farmers per hectare with high agricultural densities, which means that farms will likely yield less money.

If people are consuming the food in its natural state, rather than through the financial system, the analogy is less meaningful.

Agricultural Density in 201516Author |David DorrellSource |Original WorkLicense |

Agricultural Density in 201516 CC BY SA 4.0 (Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike) The idea of carrying capacity is closely related to the production of food.

However, it is not quite that straightforward.

Non-stop changes in natural qualities (due to desertification, for example) but also changes in technological capabilities are commonplace nowadays.

Some of these technologies may be straightforward, such as irrigation canals, while others may be more complicated, such as genetic manipulation of the plants and animals themselves. Carrying capacity is a snapshot in time captured at a specific point in time.

AP Human Geography – AP Human Geography

Where would you anticipate the largest population density to be found in the United States of America? Answers include: New York City and Washington, D.C. The Deep South is a region of the United States that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. The Rocky Mountains are a range of mountains in North America. The Great Plains are a vast expanse of land. Los Angeles is a city in California. The correct response is New York City. Explanation: The amount of people who dwell in a specified land area is referred to as the population density (usually square miles or square kilometers).

  1. The highest population density is frequently found in metropolitan regions, particularly in large cities such as New York City, which continue to develop while having a limited amount of available land.
  2. Of course, the human density in Los Angeles would still be far higher than, for example, the Rocky Mountains or the Alaskan wilderness.
  3. Europe and North America are two possible answers.
  4. Asia and Africa are two of the most populous continents on the planet.
  5. Europe and Africa are two of the most populous continents on the planet.
  6. Explanation: Asia is home to more than half of the world’s population of seven billion people.
  7. Around seven hundred million people dwell in Europe, four hundred million in South America, and five hundred million in North America, according to population estimates.

One whose survival and success are dependent on the income derived from a much larger metropolis that is located close by.

The correct response is: the largest city in a region that is disproportionately larger than the neighboring metropolitan regions.

In order to qualify as a “primate city,” a city must be disproportionately larger than other cities in the region, mostly because people who reside in the surrounding area travel to the “primate city” in quest of employment, education, or entertainment opportunities, among other reasons.

North America is one of the possible answers.

Explanation:Oceania (which includes Australia, New Zealand, and many of the surrounding Pacific Islands) is by far the least densely inhabited continent on the planet—with the exception, of course, of Antarctica, which is the least populous continent on Earth.

The next-lowest-populated country is South America, which has a population of 400 million people.

Answers that might be given include: East Coast of the United States of America The Indian subcontinent is a large continent with a lot of people.

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East Asia is a region that includes Sub-Saharan Africa is a continent in Africa.

Aside from Sub-Saharan Africa, all of the places on the list are believed to be among the densestly inhabited on the planet, according to some estimates.

Additions to this list may include southern Brazil and south-eastern Asia, among others.

the continents of the Americas the developing countries of the globe Western Europe is a region of the world that includes the countries of the European Union.

The following is an explanation: The great bulk of population increase is occurring in emerging countries.

These countries’ populations continue to expand, and they now account for an ever-increasing proportion of the world’s total.

Japan and China are two possibilities for answers.

Russia and the United States are at odds with one another.

The People’s Republic of China and the United States China and India are the correct answers.

Even though China is now the most populated country on the planet, most analysts believe that India will overtake China sometime in the next few of decades as a result of the country’s far quicker pace of population increase.

Which city is ranked second in the United States as of 2015?

Reason: With a population of about, the Indonesian capital of Jakarta is the world’s second most populated metropolis after New York City.

Shanghai has a population that is just marginally greater than New York.

Delhi has a population of little less than one million people.

If a country has a vast quantity of arable land but only a limited number of farmers, the country will be characterized by_.

a low density of agricultural production physiological density at an elevated level a high density of agricultural production Low agricultural density is the correct response.

Agricultural density is a measure of the number of farmers living on a given unit of farming area.

If there are more farmers than there is land available, land will become scarce, and the density of farmers working on it will be high, resulting in inefficient agricultural productivity.

When the arable land area of a region decreases, which of the following will be the most immediately affected?

Explanation: A reduction in arable land has the potential to have an impact on all four of the aforementioned categories. Only physiological density (number of people per unit area of arable land) is, however, directly related to the amount of arable land available.

All AP Human Geography Resources

Population density (number of inhabitants per square kilometer squared) per nation in 2006. Country-by-country population density in terms of living people Population density (number of people per square kilometer squared) map of the globe in 1994. In relation to the equator, it can be observed that the Northern Hemisphere is home to the great majority of the world’s human population, which accounts for 67 percent of the planet’s land surface. Map illustrating the world’s population density (number of people per square kilometer squared) in 2005.

In agriculture, population density (also known as standing stock or plant density) is a measurement of the number of people living in a certain area, or in extreme cases, a given volume; it is a quantity of typenumber density.

It is a crucial geographical concept.

Biological population densities

Population density is defined as the number of people divided by the total land area or total water volume, as appropriate. Low densities have the potential to create an extinction vortex, which might result in additional reductions in fertility. This phenomenon is referred to as the Allee effect, after the scientist who discovered it. The following are some examples of factors that contribute to diminished fertility in low population densities:

  • Significantly increased difficulties in obtaining sexual partners
  • Increased interbreeding

Monaco has the distinction of being the most densely inhabited country in Europe at the moment. Located in Mongolian Steppes. Mongolia is the world’s least densely inhabited country, owing to its severe environment, which is a result of the country’s geographic location. The population of the European Union (2007–2012) is represented by regions and colors in this populationcartogram of the European Union.

Human densities

Population density is defined as the number of people living in a given unit of area, which is commonly expressed in terms of square kilometres or square miles and which may include or omit regions such as water or glaciers. This is frequently estimated for a certain county, city, nation, another area, or the entire planet. The world’s population is around 7,800,000,000, while the total area of the Earth (including land and sea) is approximately 510,000,000 km 2. (197,000,000 sq. mi.). As a result of this extremely rudimentary form of computation, the worldwide human population density is around 7,800,000,000 510,000,000 = 15.3 people per square kilometer of land area (40 per sq.

  • However, if only the Earth’s surface area of 150,000,000 km2 (58,000,000 sq.
  • mi.).
  • Furthermore, if Antarctica is omitted from the calculations, the population density increases to more than 55 persons per km2 (over 142 per sq.
  • More than half of the Earth’s geographical area is made up of unsuitable environments for human life, such as deserts and high mountains, and the majority of the world’s population tends to congregate around seaports and fresh-water sources.
  • Several of the world’s most densely inhabited areas are city-states, microstates, and urban dependencies, to name a few examples.
  • These areas have a limited land area and a high level of urbanization, with a city population that is economically specialized and that draws on rural resources from outside the area, demonstrating the distinction between high population density and overcrowding.
  • As a result, their population density is rather low.
  • Cities with high population densities are considered overpopulated by some, however this may vary depending on aspects such as the quality of housing and infrastructure, as well as the availability of available resources.

Although city population and area are highly dependent on the definition of “urban area” used, densities are almost always higher when only the center of the city is considered rather than when suburban settlements and intervening rural areas are considered, as in the agglomeration or metropolitan area definition (the latter sometimes including neighboring cities).

Comparatively, based on a world population of 7.8 billion people, the world’s occupants, if imagined as a loose throng occupying little under 1 m 2(10 sq. ft) per person (cf. Jacobs Method), would take up a space that is slightly bigger than the state of Delaware’s total land area.

Countries and dependent territories

Population under 10,000,000

Rank Country or dependent territory Area Population Density
km 2 sq. mi. per km 2 per sq. mi.
1 Macau(China) 30.5 12 650,834 21,339 55,268
2 Monaco 2.02 0.78 37,550 18,589 48,145
3 Singapore 719.9 278 5,612,300 7,796 20,192
4 Hong Kong(China) 1,106.3 427 7,409,800 6,698 17,348
5 Gibraltar(UK) 6.8 2.6 33,140 4,874 12,624
6 Bahrain 757 292 1,451,200 1,917 4,965
7 Vatican City 0.44 0.17 800 1,818 4,709
8 Malta 315 122 475,701 1,510 3,911
9 Maldives 298 115 378,114 1,269 3,287
10 Bermuda(UK) 52 20 63,779 1,227 3,178
Population above 10,000,000

Rank Country Area Population Density
km 2 sq. mi. per km 2 per sq. mi.
6 Bangladesh 143,998 55,598 170,329,768 1,183 3,064
10 Taiwan 36,193 13,974 23,539,588 650 1,683
13 South Korea 100,210 38,691 51,824,142 517 1,339
14 Rwanda 26,338 10,169 12,955,768 492 1,274
16 Burundi 27,816 10,740 12,574,571 452 1,171
17 Haiti 27,065 10,450 11,743,017 434 1,124
18 Netherlands 41,526 16,033 17,572,831 423 1,096
19 India 3,287,240 1,269,210 1,374,547,140 418 1,083
22 Belgium 30,528 11,787 11,554,449 378 979
23 Philippines 300,000 115,831 109,961,895 367 951

Other methods of measurement

Population density is defined as the number of people living in a given unit of area, which is often expressed in terms of square kilometres or square miles and which may include or exclude regions such as water or glaciers, for example. Typically, this is estimated for a county, a city, a country, another area, or the entire planet, depending on the context. A rough estimate of the world’s population is around 7,800,000,000, with an estimated land and sea area totaling 510,000,000 km2 (including land and ocean) (197,000,000 sq.

  • The density of the world’s human population, according to this extremely primitive kind of estimate, is roughly 7,800,000,000 510 million = 15.3 people per square kilometer (40 per sq.
  • In contrast, if only the Earth’s surface area of 150,000,000 km2 (58,000,000 sq.
  • mi.).
  • If Antarctica is also eliminated, the population density increases to more than 55 individuals per square kilometer of land surface (over 142 per sq.
  • More than half of the Earth’s surface area is made up of unsuitable environments for human life, such as deserts and high mountains, with the majority of the world’s population congregating around seaports and freshwater supplies.
  • Several of the world’s most densely inhabited regions are city-states, microstates, and urban dependencies, to name a few categories.

These areas have a limited land area and a high level of urbanization, with a city population that is economically specialized and that draws on rural resources from beyond the area, demonstrating the distinction between high population density and overcrowding Because there is little rainfall in deserts to enable agricultural growth, the potential for crop production is extremely restricted.

In contrast, other cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have experienced rapid population increase as well as infrastructural development.

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Asia (especially Southeast Asia) has the highest concentration of densely inhabited cities, followed by Africa’s Lagos, Kinshasa, and Cairo, South America’s Bogotá, Lima, and So Paulo, as well as Mexico City and Saint Petersburg.

In example, based on a world population of 7.8 billion people, the world’s occupants, if imagined as a loose throng occupying little under 1 m 2(10 sq. ft) per person (cf. Jacobs Method), would occupy a space that is slightly bigger than the state of Delaware’s land area (see figure below).

  • Arithmetic density is defined as the total number of people divided by the entire area of land. Physiological density is defined as the ratio of the whole population to the total amount of arable land. Agricultural density is defined as the ratio of the entire rural population to the total amount of arable land. Residence Density (also known as population density) is the number of people who live in an urban area or a certain amount of residential property. Urban density is defined as the ratio of the number of people living in an urban area to the total area of urban land. Achievable ecological optimum: The highest possible population density that can be supported by available natural resources. Density of people who live: The population density at which the average person lives.

See also

  • Sample at a distance Demography
  • Geography of the human being
  • A population that is idealized
  • A list of groups that are concerned about the population
  • Population at its optimum
  • Density of plant life
  • The dynamics of the population
  • The population is dwindling
  • Increase in the number of people on the planet
  • Genetics of populations
  • Health of the general public
  • Population growth is on the rise. Pyramid of the population
  • An issue with rural transportation
  • A small number of people living there

Lists of entities by population density

  • List of suburbs in Australia ranked by population density
  • List of nations ranked according to population density
  • List of cities ranked according to population density
  • List of city districts ranked according to population density
  • List of English districts ranked according to population density List of the most populous cities in the European Union, ordered by population density
  • List of islands ranked according to population density
  • Population densities of the states and territories of the United States are listed below.


  1. ^abc Matt Rosenberg is a writer and editor based in New York City. Population Density, according to, published on March 2, 2011. It was retrieved on the 10th of December, 2011. The smallest feasible population size. Archived from the original on October 6, 2012, via the Wayback Machine (Saturday, March 6, 2010) “Why is Mongolia so sparsely populated?” is a question that was answered on December 10, 2011. Esther Fleming, courtesy of SidmartinBio
  2. provides world population clocks for the United States. It was retrieved on the 10th of December, 2011. CIA World Handbook
  3. CIA World Handbook
  4. CIA World Handbook The Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2009). “World Population Prospects, Table A.1” is a publication of the United Nations Population Division (PDF). The most recent change was made in 2008. The United Nations (U.N. Obtainable on March 12, 2009
  5. Monaco’s government utilizes a reduced surface area number, which results in a population density of 18,078 people per square kilometer of land
  6. In the words of the author, “Urbanization: 95 percent of the world’s population lives on 10 percent of the world’s land.” ScienceDaily. On September 1, 2020, you will be able to download B. A. Portnov and A. Hare are two of the most well-known scientists in the world (1999). Desert regions: their population, migratory patterns, and environmental conditions. Springer.ISBN3540657800.OCLC41320143
  7. s^ Issues concerning the human population and the world at large. On December 10, 2011, the following information was retrieved: “The biggest cities in the world by land area, population, and density.” has an archived version of this page from May 16, 2015. It was retrieved on the 10th of December, 2011. Spain has claimed territory in the area. Based on NASA SEDAC global gridded data, an analysis of live population density by country was conducted.

External links

  • Duncan Smith of the University of London’s Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis has selected current and historic city, ward, and neighborhood density data. “World Population Density” is an abbreviation. The data on this exploratory map comes from the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL), which was generated by the European Commission, the Joint Research Centre, and the CIESIN at Columbia University.

AP Exam Vocabulary Items

AP Human Geography ExamVocabulary DefinitionsUnit 2: Population(Ch. 3 in Barron’s)The following vocabulary itemscan be found in your review book and class handouts.Theseidentifications and concepts do not necessarily constituteallthatwill be covered on the exam. Ecumene:The proportion of earth�s surface occupied by permanent human settlement.This is important because it tells how much of the land has been built uponand how much land is left for us to build on.Population densities-the frequency with which something occurs in space is density�Arithmetic density:The totalnumber of people divided by the total land area.This is what most peoplethink of as density; how many people per area of land.Physiological density:The number ofpeople per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable foragriculture.This is important because it relates to how much land is beingused by how many people.* Agriculturaldensity : the number of farmers per unit of area of farmland.Maymean a country has inefficient agriculture.Carrying capacity:This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantityof food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present.This isimportant because it tells how many people an area will be able to support.Affects the populationand a country�s or area�s ability to support that population.Sustainability-providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in thepresent and for the futureRelates to developmentthat meets today�s needs without compromising the ability of futuregenerations to meet their own needs.Distribution:The arrangement ofsomething across Earth�s surface (space).Populationdistributions-the arrangement of a feature in space is distribution.Geographers identifythe three main properties asdensity,concentration, andpattern(Used to describe how things and people are distributed)Major populationconcentrations (distributions):
-East Asia:largest concentration; China, Japan, North and South Korea (1.5billion people).Ribbon-like extensions of dense population(clustered nearrivers; majority of people arefarmers)-SouthAsia:second majorconcentration; India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka (1.5billion).Also ribbon (finger)-like extensions of dense population(e.g. Ganges River in India), majority are farmers as well.-Europe:third majorconcentration; Britain to Russia, including Germany, Poland,Ukraine, Belarus, Netherlands, Belgium, parts of France, northernItaly (700 million).Ribbon-like extension deep into Russia (followEurope�scoal deposits, not fertile river valleys).Ribbons are concentrated along numerous citiestowns (due to theIndustrial Revolution; Germany � 85% urban, UK -90%).-NorthAmericaa far fourth;east-central US and southeastern Canada (200 million).LikeEurope, much is concentrated in major cities.
Linear growth:arithmetic growth;increases at a constant amount per unit time (1, 2, 3, 4, �)Exponential growth:geometricgrowth; doubles each population (2, 4, 8, 16, �)Doubling time:The number of yearsneeded to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.This is important because it can help project countries� population increaseover the years and when its population will double. It is a projection andnot meant to be an accurate predictor of the future.Population explosion-a sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certaingeographical area or worldwideOccurred in the late 18 thand early 19 thcenturies because several countries moved on tostage 2 of the DTM.Can trace factors that lead to these explosions.Population structure(composition or distribution):(Population pyramid) is two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the numberof males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year agegroups.This is important because you can tell from the age distributionimportant characteristic of a country, whether high guest worker population,they just had a war or a deadly disease and more.Population pyramid-(age-sex pyramid)population displayed by age and gender on a bar graphShape is determinedprimarily by crude birth rate.Shows age distribution and sex ratio.Cohort:Population of various age categories in a population pyramid.This is important because this can tell what state this country it iswhether in Stage 3 or Stage 5 in the demographic transition model.BabyBoom:people born in the US between 1946 and 1964; this post-war eraallowed for better education, employment, peace and prosperity – increasinghigher rates of both marriage and fertility.BabyBust:period in the US during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility ratesdropped as many female baby boomers sought higher levels of education andjobs, marrying later in life.Generation X:people born in the US between 1965 and 1980; will have theburden of supporting the Baby Boom cohort as they head into retirement.Generation Y:people born between 1980 and 2001; also referred to as”Echo Boomers” (many are the offspring of Baby Boomers).Demography:geographic study ofpopulationNatural increase:births minus deathsin a given population.Crude birth rate (CBR ornatality):number of live births per year per 1,000 peopleCrude death rate (CDR):number ofdeaths per year per 1,000 peopleMortality:There are two useful ways to measure mortality; infant mortality rate andlife expectancy.The IMR reflect a country�s health care system and lifeexpectancy measures the average number of years a baby can expect to live.Rate of naturalincrease-thepercentage by which a population grows in a year.CBR-CDR = NIR (excludes migration)Total fertility rate:(TFR)average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years(expressed as children per woman). In the U.S it�s below 2.1 in much ofAfrica it is above 4, if South America is between 2 and 3, in Europe it isbelow 2.1, in China and Russia it is below 2.1, and in much of the MiddleEast it is above 4.This is important because its shows how many kids amother is havingInfant mortality rate:(IMR) Theannual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared withtotal live births. Its is expressed as the annual number of deaths amonginfants among infants per 1000 births rather than a percentage. This isimportant because it tell how developed a country is, if they have a highIMR they are an LDC and if it is low they are an MDC.Child mortality rate:annual numberof deaths of children under the age of 5, compared with total live births(also calculated as number of deaths per 1,000 births).Maternal mortality rate:annual numberof deaths of women during childbirth per 1,000 women.Dependency ratio:The number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to thenumber of people in their productive years. This is important because thistells how many people each worker supports.For example the largerpopulation of dependents, the greater financial burden on those who areworking to support those who cannot.Demographic equation:The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds theincrease (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing birthsminus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because ithelps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a countryis in.Demographic Transitionmodel: Has 4steps. Stage 1 is low growth (low stationary), Stage 2 is High Growth (earlyexpanding), Stage 3 is Moderate Growth (late expanding), and Stage 4 is LowGrowth (low stationary), and Stage 5 although not officially a stage is apossible stage that includes zero or negative population growth.This isimportant because this is the way our country and others countries aroundthe world are transformed from a less developed country to a more developedcountry.Epidemiological transition (model):essentially the same thing asthe demographic transition, however it specifically denotes a human phase ofdevelopment witnessed by a sudden and stark increase in population growthratesbrought about by medical innovation in disease or sicknesstherapy and treatment, followed by a re-leveling of populationgrowth from subsequent declines in procreation rates.-Thefirst transitionoccurred when advancements in antibiotic research in the mid twentiethcentury, most notably inthe discovery of penicillin, led to widespread and dramatic declines indeath rates frominfectious diseases.- Thesecond transitionoccurred when human birth rates drastically decline, as the inherent needfor manual physical labordrops. This transition is more complicated, and entails the sociologicaladaptations associatedwith demographic movements to urban areas, and a shift from primary andsecondary productionoutput to technological and service-sector-based economies (tertiary,quaternary, and quinary).Demographic momentum:this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after afertility decline because of their young age distribution.This isimportant because once this happens a country moves to a different stage inthe demographic transition model.Demographic regions:Cape Verde is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile is in Stage 3 (ModerateGrowth), and Denmark is in Stage 4 (Low Growth).This is important becauseit shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of thedemographic transition.J-curve:This is when the projection population show exponential growth; sometimesshape as a j-curve.This is important because if the population growsexponential our resource use will go up exponential and so will our use aswell as a greater demand for food and more.S-curve-traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards in a graph. So named forits shape as the letter “s”Relates to growth anddecline in the natural increase.Overpopulation-relationship between the number of people on Earth, and the availability ofresourcesProblems result when anarea�s population exceeds the capacity of the environment to support them atan acceptable standard of living.Underpopulation-it is the opposition to overpopulation and refers to a sharp drop ordecrease in a region�s populationUnlike overpopulation,it does not refer to resources but to having enough people to support thelocal economic system.If there are not enough tax payers, then the areacannot continue.Stationary populationlevel (SPL):when the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate and the naturalincrease rate approaches zero. (akaZero population growth;Oftenapplied to countries in stage 4 of the demographic transition model)Population theorists:-Thomas Malthus:food production =linear; human reproduction = geometric; despite natural checks (famine,disease) � will always be overpopulation; he brought up the point that wemay be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growingpopulation.-Boserup:human growth stimulates agricultural intensification (Malthus upside-down)-Marx:anti-capitalist; lack offood is due to unequal distribution; human growth is not a problem-Cornucopian theory:Earth has anabundance of resources; can never be used upNeo-malthusian-theory that builds upon Malthus� thoughts on overpopulation.Takes intocount two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC�s, andoutstripping of resources other than foodRecognizes thatpopulation growth in LDC�s is from the transfer of medical talents fromMDC�s but not the wealth that would provide food and resources.Migration Patterns:(immigration= into a region; emigration = out of a region)-Intercontinental-Permanent movement from one country to a different country on the samecontinent.-Interregional-Permanent movement from one region of the country to another.-Rural-Urban-Permanent movement from suburbs and rural area to the urban city area.Laws ofmigration:1885; ErnstRavenstein (studied internal migration in England) migration amounts to afraction of the gross migration2.the majority of migrants move ashort distance3.migrants who move longer distancestend to choose big cities4.urban residents are less migratorythan inhabitants of rural areas5.families are less likely to makeinternational moves than young adultsGravity Model:(Ravenstein) Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directlyrelated to the number of people in the area and inversely related to thedistance people must travel to access it.Push factors:incentives forpeople to leave a place (e.g., harsh climate, economic recession, politicalturmoil)Pull factors:attractions thatdraw migrants to a place (pleasant climate, employment, education)Catalysts of migration:many existsuch as economic conditions, political circumstances, armed conflictcivilwar, environmental conditions, culture and traditions, technologicaladvances, flow of information (through technology) �Friction of Distance-is based on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort,money, and/or energy to overcome. Because of this “friction,” spatialinteractions will tend to take place more often over shorter distances;quantity of interaction will decline with distance.Distance Decay-The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenonwith increasing distance from its origin.Typically, the farther away onegroup is from another, the less likely the two groups are to interact.(Electronic devices such as the internet and e-mail have aided ineliminating barriers to interaction between people who are far from eachother.Step migration:migration to adestination that occurs in stages (e.g., from farm to nearby village andlater to town and city)Chain migration:migration event inwhich individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or familyto an existing community (initial migration created a �chain reaction�)Can be seen from Mexico to the United States when guest workers set up homesand make money for their family to follow them.Intervening opportunity:the presenceof a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sitesfarther awayVoluntary migration:movement inwhich people relocate in response to perceived opportunity)Forced Migration:People removed from their countries and forced to live in other countriesbecause of war, natural disaster, and government.(Atlantic Slave Trade,Jewish Diaspora)Counter migration:migration back to an original area in which people had left (e.g., migrationincreases after natural disasters, yet many eventually return after a time)Cyclic movement:movement that has aclosed route and is repeated annually or seasonally (e.g.,activity(action) space� space within which daily activity occurs; commuting,seasonal, nomadism)Periodic movement:movement thatinvolves temporary, recurrent relocation (e.g., military service, migrantworkers, college attendance,transhumance �movement of pastoralistsand their livestock between highland and lowland pastures)Migratory:a change in residenceintended to be permanent�Refugees:people wholeave their homes because they are forced out (but not because they areofficially relocated (Nazis forcing Jews into ghettoes) or enslaved.Mostrefugees 1) move without any more tangible property than what they can carryor transport with them; 2) make their first �step� on foot, by bicycle,wagon, or open boat; and 3) move without the official documents thataccompany channeled migration.-internal:displaced within theirown countries-international:crossed aninternational boundary duringdislocation; seekingasylumin adifferent countryPopulation policies:typicallysponsored by governments-Expansive:encourage large familiesand raise the rate of population growth (e.g., USSR under Stalin and Chinaunder Mao Zedong)-Restrictive:reduce the rate ofnatural increase (e.g., India promoted sterilization, now has focused oneducation, advertising, and family planning; in China � theOne-Child policysince 1978)-Eugenic:favor one racial sectorover others (e.g., Japan, US up until the civil rights movement (1960s),Nazis are an extreme example of eugenics)Censustract:areal unit that best approximates aneighborhood in size through small county subdivisions

How does population density influence agricultural intensification and productivity? Evidence from Malawi

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Smaller farms and lower agricultural salaries are connected with higher rural concentrations, according to research. With increased population density, crop revenue per hectare does not increase. Households in highly populated areas are becoming increasingly reliant on nonfarm sources of income. Off-farm income, on the other hand, grows only up to a population of around 400 people per km2. Our findings imply that Boserupian intensification has its limits in densely populated rural areas.


Rural population density has an influence on agricultural intensification and household well-being, and this paper analyzes nationally representative household-level panel data from Malawi to determine how this has an impact. Increasing population density is related with smaller farm sizes, lower real agricultural wage rates, and higher real maize prices, according to our findings. According to our research findings, any input intensification that happens appears to be directed toward raising maize yields, as there is no indication that increases in population density allow farmers to enhance the gross value of crop production per hectare.


Density of the population Agricultural intensification is a term that is used to describe the process of increasing the amount of food produced. Rural development is a broad term that includes a variety of different things. Innovation as a result of inducing it Smallholders Malawi Elsevier Ltd. retains ownership of the copyright.

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