Before joining the framework
To be considered to be on the place value framework, that is, to be at the pre-place value level on the framework (treating ten as a count), a student must be able to count on and back. The following example is indicative of a student who would not be considered to have reached level 0 on the place value framework.
The response shown above from a Year 3 student is typical of a perceptual counter. That is, a student who has to recreate a number before operating with it. Both the 26 and 48 have been recreated using individual marks before counting from one to find the total. How the answer is achieved is very important in determining the level at which the student is operating.