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Battista, M. T., Clements, D. H., Arnoff, J., Battista, K., & Borrow, C. V. A. (1998). Students’ spatial structuring of 2D arrays of squares. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 29(5), 503-532.

Bragg, P., & Outhred, N. L. (2004). A measure of rulers - The importance of units in a measure. In M. J. Høines & A. B. Fuglestad (Eds.), Proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 2, pp. 159-166). Bergen, Norway: Program Committee.

Curry, M., Mitchelmore, M, & Outhred, L. (2006). Development of children’s understanding of length, area, and volume principles.In J. Novotná, H. Moraová, M. Krátká, & N. Stehlíková (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 2, pp. 377–384, Prague: PME. 

Inhelder, B., Sinclair, H., & Bovet, M. (1974). Learning and the development of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Outhred, L., & McPhail, D. (2000). A framework for teaching early measurement. In J. Bana & A. Chapman (Eds.), Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. (Vol. 2, pp. 487-494). Sydney, Australia: MERGA.

Outhred, L. & Mitchelmore, M. C. (2000). Young children’s intuitive understanding of rectangular area measurement. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 31, 144-167. 


This aspect of The Numeracy Continuum has been formed by the work of many researchers and teachers. First among the researchers have been the contributions of Dr Lynne Outhred and Dr Mike Mitchelmore.

NSW Department of Education © 2010

NumeracyContinuum introVid_tbn

The Numeracy Continuum Introduction Video