Pre-place value (Level 0)
At Level 0, the pre-place value level, a student must be able to count on and back. Counting on and back requires starting from one number and then either counting on the second number to find the total or counting back to find the difference between the two numbers.
The above response of counting on by ones from 48 suggests that the 48 is treated as standing in place of counting 48 items. Level 0 is still referred to as pre-place value as no use is made of the structure of tens and ones in determining the answer.